Jordan McNair- Maryland

Stopping heat stroke deaths takes a combination of adequate hydration with  coaches and trainers who understand  both the causes and the symptoms of heat stroke.

On September 1, 1962 Reggie Grob, a Texas football player, was rushed to the hospital with a  core temperature of  106.  He died two weeks later.   May 29th , 2018 Jordan McNair ,a Maryland football player, was rushed to the hospital with a core temperature of 106.  He died two weeks later.  56 years of important heat stroke research separated these  two tragic deaths , but for a Jordan McNair on this day of infamy research on what precipitates a heat related death was forgotten.  



The story that follows tells the story of a  fictional character named "Joe" and his coaches who missed all the signals that lead to Joe's heat stroke death.


When  water was for Sissies 1950's - 1962 By Billy Dale

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Joe Good  is a fictional football player trying out for the  Core Heat  AA High School  football team  in a West Texas town in 1961. It is a time when Coaches  believe that drinking water during football practice is for sissies. During the first 4 minutes of conditioning drill on the first day of practice on a hot humid day in late August 1961 Joe Good becomes  another statistic of the "water is for sissies" conviction.   Joe dies when his core temperature  reaches 108 degrees and all his organs shut down. 

In 1961  medical professionals were still researching the significance of  dehydration in the death spiral.  Joe Good  died because dehydration made his blood thicker which increased his  heart rate and decreased the amount of blood his  heart could pump with each beat. To exacerbate Joe's problem dehydration made it harder for his fat to get into his  muscles to be used for fuel. Instead  his  muscles burned the limited sugars (glycogen) already there. 


Since the full dynamics of  the role dehydration plays in  heat stroke was unknown  to the Coaches in 1961 at  Core Heat  High School , they continued to use "proven" techniques learned from past generations of Coaches  to “motivate”  their athletes. Bear Bryant's Coaching style  from the 50's  was one of them. 


In Junction Boys by Jim Dent he says that  Bryant was aware of  a couple of death's  due to heatstroke in 1954 , but one of his trainers reasoned "Hell you never pour ice water into a car's hot radiator. So why pour ice water into a hot boy."  That logic almost cost the life of Billy Schroeder at a practice in Junction, but Coach Bryant still did not permit water at practice.  Cotton mouth was prevalent and even the great Jack Pardee said " I'm so thirsty that I can't even make spit."

 All the players at Core Heat High School knew not to  ask for water during work-out  because it was tantamount to admitting to a  character flaw or a weak spirit. The other myth past down from coaches in  the 40's and 50's  promoted screaming, cajoling, and  spewing insulting remarks at  players as proven "motivational" techniques.    It was during conditioning drills that all these  techniques came into play. Conditioning exercises  allowed Coaches insight into the “character” of their athletes. It was a time to separate  the “sissies” from the "men".

In Junction Boys by Jim Dent Coach Bryant ask two seniors "what is wrong with the team?"  Marvin Tate responded" ......players are getting tired of being cussed all the time." "I've never been called so many names in my life, Coach. Every time I turn around, one of the coaches is making fun of somebody's mother."


On the day of Joe’s death his brain sent him a message. It said slow down because  you are fatigued and  your core temperature is rising.  Joe did exactly what his mind said,  but the Coach interpreted Joe’s slower pace as laziness and gave Joe a symbolic “kick in the butt" using cajoling and derogatory remarks as the "motivational" techniques of choice.  


In particular, screaming, cajoling, and insults were a flawed  technique for Joe's particular personality.   Joe was a proud individual who wanted to make the team at all cost so the verbal kicks  were not effective.  His Coaches  comments  only  served to embarrass him in front of his peers.  According to Coach Darrell Royal  “ When you take  pride away from a player, you've destroyed the best tool you've got.  If you hurt him, you've hurt the team."

Joe's pride was hurt, but his motivation to make the team remained intact.  Joe was a  normal  17 year old boy  trying to find his way in life.  He wanted recognition and a sense of belonging. Football offered him that chance.  He wanted the adoration of all the pretty  girls ,  attention at parties, respect from peers, and recognition from the residence of his hometown.  He had no desire to play beyond his high school years, and a college education was not in his future.  Making the team would be a major benchmark in his life.    Joe was willing to use samurai warrior techniques to make the the team so he pushed himself harder during the conditioning drills.   Joe's decision to push harder  when his mind said slow down was the final bad decision in a perfect storm of events that took his life .  

Joe's positive attributes- a hard working attitude, determination to succeed , and his never quit mentality-  combined with a hot humid day , a coach who pushed too hard, and a refusal to listen to his body caused his death.   If only one of these factors had not been present  Joe would still be alive.

Joe’s death was only covered locally. A reflection of the national mindset of the media and  general populous in  the 60’s.   A death of an athlete at practice was not worthy of national news.  Everyone of course was sad at Joe's  passing, but fans who loved football understood that “inherently uncontrollable risks” are part of the game and Joe knew that risk.    One year later two events will shock the sports  world.  All fans would learn that dying from dehydration is not an  inherently uncontrollable risk.  It is in fact controllable and preventable.   

Most coaches at the University level prior to 1962 followed the “truism” that  water is for sissies.   Royal’s football program adhered to this belief. Coach Royal wanted tough players so he had tough workouts with lots of conditioning.  I know because I played for him in the late 60’s on two national championship teams. Royal said  "Football is a physical contact, spartan game.  You don't go out there for any taffy-pull......"  Under Royal’s regime only the strongest survived.  

In 1962  two real heat related deaths in the SWC  exposed the belief that water is for sissies as a fraud.  It would forever change the dynamics of  hydration at practice.

 Pat Culpepper’s played ball for the Horns in the early 60’s and he wrote an Orange Blood thread about what happened in 1962 that finally exposed  “water is for sissies”  as an imposter. 

 He says,  “We (Longhorns) had come through two weeks of full pad practices in the Austin heat and humidity. There were water breaks for the first time because of heat problems around the Southwest Conference. In fact, we had five players taken to Breckenridge Hospital with heat dehydration. Only one never made it back - Reggie Grob from Houston. He died along with the senior captain from SMU, Mike Kelsey. Doctors thought the new plastic shoulder pads had something to do with the heat problems. Most of us wore expensive leather shoulder pads that actually got wet with our sweat which let some air through the jerseys while the plastic pads encased the player and did not allow any air. Before those youngsters died we never got water breaks, but our head coach Darrell Royal, as other coaches learned a tragic lesson. We went to Reggie's memorial service in Houston as a team in two buses on Monday of our first game.

Pat is referring to the deaths of Mike Kelsey, the starting center for SMU  and Reggie Grob from Texas who had heat stroke on the same day as Mike but who survived for  17 days before succumbing to  liver and kidney failure.  Reggie  was 19 years old.  At the time of Reggie’s passing only salt tablets were offered to reduce dehydration during practice.   








According to Jones Ramsey (Sports Information Director) Coach Royal was devastated by Reggie’s death and “collapses and cries” in the huge arms of Defensive Line Coach Charley Shria.

Bill Little said about Reggie " In a very real sense, his death meant that thousands and thousands have lived. Out of tragedy, he gave us all a gift. And that's why he's a legend".

Juan Conde says   "I was already working as assistant equipment manager when Reggie passed away from heat exhaustion. I also recall Frank Medina tending him vigorously and the arrival of the ambulance. This incident took place at the old practice field across the creek and across from memorial stadium where practices were held. Coach Royal took Reggie’s death very hard."




The death of Reggie and Mike  was a wake up call for all who are associated with sports.  Doctors, led by the American Medical Association, began immediate research on the effects of heat on the human body. Within a year, Universities mandated more liquids be served to athletes during work-outs and games.

At the high school changes were slower.  Some states were proactive  and moved quickly to change workout routines.  State athletic associations and individual school districts  mandated limited practices during certain times of day,  and practice days without full pads so that athletes could acclimate to the weather.  Other states struggled to make  changes to protect athletes.  As of 2018 one state representative is still  struggling to pass a bill  that would require head coaches and assistant coaches of interscholastic or intramural sports to complete an education course on heat-related medical issues that could arise from a student athlete's training.  In 2009 a  Kentucky   coach faced reckless homicide and wanton-endangerment charges in connection with 15-year-old heat related death.  It was alleged that his players  were in full gear, and several of them  were denied water and told to keep running wind sprints -- called "gassers" -- in 94 degree heat, even after vomiting.  It was learned  that the boy who died was taking  amphetamine Adderall for an attention deficit disorder which affects the body's ability to thermal regulate.  The coach was acquitted by a jury in two hours, but yet another lesson was learned at the expense of a young boy.   In 2011  two football players and one coach died  after practise  in scorching temperatures.



Education and  hydration are the answer to ZERO deaths from heat stroke.

Stopping heat stroke deaths takes a combination of adequate hydration and coaches that understand  the causes and symptoms of heat stroke.  

The 1960's was the beginning of the educational process that still continues. The learning curve to eliminate heat stroke is still costing lives of many boys.   In 1962 we learned that the new plastic shoulder pads  did not allow  air ventilation and was the primary suspect in the deaths of  Mike and Reggie.  In 2009 we learned  that a prescription amphetamines combined with a strenuous workout could precipitate a death.  In the decade of the 2000's the death rate due to heat stroke  rose for the first time in 40 years.  We learned that one of the reasons is   due to the enormous size of the high school athletes.   Doctors state that  their  weight is more fat than  muscle and even if this athlete is hydrated  fat makes it harder for the body to dissipate heat and could cause heat stroke.  Quite frankly if Joe Good had played ball in  2018 instead of 1961 he  may still  have died.  

1960’s- 42 deaths   1970’s – 31 deaths    1980’s – 14 deaths   1990’s – 14 deaths    2000’s -  29 deaths

Research At the college level based on an ANNUAL SURVEY OF FOOTBALL INJURY RESEARCH  from 1931 - 2014  by  Kristen L. Kucera, MSPH, PhD, ATC Director, National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill the worst decades  for heat stroke were in the 60’s and 70’s.

From my perspective 56 years after Reggie's death and  Bill Littles positive comment that Reggies "death meant that thousands and thousands have lived" . "Out of tragedy, he gave us all a gift". "And that's why he's a legend" is still true but somewhat tainted by the lessons still not learned after  56 years.  From my perspective it is inexcusable for  one athlete to die from heat stroke in 2018. Shame on any  system that knows  the causes of  heat stroke, but refuses to follow protocol to prevent it.  Until  the system becomes more disciplined and educated  more preventable deaths of  young boys will continue and their  families will suffer the consequences.    


Billy Dale- Proud member of the 1967 football recruiting class. 


Mark Walters was a trainer for Augie Garrido: 


              I really enjoyed your article, and as we approach the summer months, the importance of keeping well hydrated has not always been in the forethought of our coaches in years past. The mid-60s was in an interesting time in sports science, where you had your traditional old school coaches like Royal, Bear Bryant, and Woody Hayes who kept with the tried and true coaching philosophy of no pain, no gain; going against advances in sports-science. The coaching models of the time often butted heads with sport-scientists who wanted to introduce medical based training models with the old guard but were often rebutted. 


              Where hydration is concerned, one of the forefathers is Robert Cade, a San Antonio native, and UT grad and medical school grad. Cade went on to become a professor at the University of Florida, and after doing research about dehydration with members of the Florida football team, he became a founding inventor of a product called Gatorade. 


              UT does a great deal of research in the field of sports-science. Where Gatorade is a high carbohydrate drink, Dr. Lisa Ferguson-Stegall at UT recently published a paper on a low-carb beverage with added protein that increases endurance times in cyclists. Dr. John Ivy, one of the nations top researchers has pioneered our understanding of muscle metabolism and how nutritional supplementation can improve exercise performance, recovery and training adaptation.  Where at one time there may have been a divisive line between coaches and those outside the direct control of the program, today there is a co-joined relationship that feeds off one another to make sure that the best product is put on the field every Saturday in the fall. 



In 1969 Ralph was on the Longhorn Freshman team.  Against Lon Morris College his freshman year he was credited with 10 rebounds and 17 points. On the freshman team he averaged 14.7 points a game and led the team in rebounds.  

On January 26, 1971 Ralph Elliott got his first starting assignment  for the Longhorns under Coach Leon Black and   Coach Royal was so impressed with his talent, he ask Ralph to tryout for the football team at tight end.   

On April 8, 1971 he was gone.  6"8"  Ralph Elliott was killed along with two others in a two car accident near his hometown of Denison, Tx. 

Coach Black and the whole basketball team attended the funeral in Denison. 

God Rest the soul of this fine athlete who is part of Longhorn heritage. His memory will not be forgotten

This site is dedicated to  all the Longhorns who have built our great university.  None of the "building' would have occurred without the donor class.   Royal was passionate about  giving back as confirmed by a sign that he hung in the Texas football Locker room  in the 60's that said:



Everyone involved with the UT Athletic department over the  last 120 plus years has played an important role  in making the Longhorn brand the most recognized name in NCAA sports  history and none of these contributors  should  be  left behind.  Most horns that were part of the U.T. Athletic Department deserve an equity stake in our great university and should have a safety net available when necessary.  Jackie Campbell, a Longhorn volleyball player from the 80's, is such a person.  Her son, Yanaq, was diagnosed with Leukemia in 2017.  Jackie needed financial help so she reached out to UT for help ,and UT notified TLSN of her situation. From January 2018- June 2018 TLSN raised $15,000 to help Jackie defray expenses.  Her son is recovery and  he will be released from medical supervision sometime in August 2018.


TLSN wants to fulfill Coach Royal's message that hung in the locker room.  It is the  code for compassion and donors know that  "What I gave I kept."   


Billy Dale 

The donate button below is only for tax exempt donations to TLSN. An organization that helps qualifying former Longhorn student athletes, former managers, trainers, and their immediate families.

If you want to send a check please make out the check to "TLSN" and send to 

CFO- Jim Kay - P.O. Box 983-  Burnet, TX - 78611-0983



To Leave Something Behind by Sean Rowe " I can get thru the wall if you give me a door So I can leave something behind."


"Leaving something behind"

The inspiration for the TLSN (Texas Legacy Support Network) mission started informally in 2004 when some Legacy Longhorn student athletes assisted  former letter winners who needed temporary financial support. The money donated was used to help one teammate rebuild his home destroyed by fire, another teammate recover from damages caused by a hurricane, and several teammates defray medical expenses not covered by insurance.

In 2015 three Longhorn lettermen -Benny Pace, Jim Kay, and Billy Dale- joined forces to create a tax exempt charitable foundation to enable TLSN to raise funds from tax deductible contributions and to use those funds to provide  financial assistance to qualifying  former  student athletes , trainers, managers, coaches , and their immediate families. 

TLSN received notice of its tax exempt 501 (c) (3) status on September 12, 2017.

Click on the image below to visit other Legacy Longhorn Charitable causes.

You can also donate to the causes listed in the thumbnail shown below.  Just click on the photo below and choose the appropriate site. 

Overachieving - the good, bad, and the ugly

Madonna says :

My interest in writing this article was motivated by the positive attributes I saw in overachieving Longhorn football players. To educate myself on the good, bad, and ugly of overachieving , I had to do a little research dealing with the difference between student, employees, and athlete overachievers. 

I learned a lot about myself researching this article. I always felt like overachieving was a good thing, but as I reflect on my life I see that some aspects of over achieving are not good. As a student and as an employee overachieving consumed my every waking moment. I was the dictionary's definition of an overachiever. The dictionary says that “there is an implicit presumption that an overachiever receives superior results through excessive effort”. Rick Pitino says 'overachiever' it's sort of an incorrect term. An overachiever is someone that's just willing to pay the price to get so much more out of his performance. Such as, Venus Williams who says “I'm this overachiever type, I'll just work and work and I'll just do it over and over and over again.”  As stated in the title overachieving can be bad and sometime ugly if the OA is obsessive to a fault.



Let me Explain Why



Image to the right  is not politically correct, but the message he chose reflects his good sense of humor while making the point that overachieving is not always good. 




OA’s in school and work tend to be obsessive and result oriented. Psychologists say that these individuals pay a heavy mental price for reaching their potential.  These type of Overachievers tend to :

·      lose patience with peers for not being a perfectionist,

·      struggle in social situations,

·      allow fear of failure and self-doubt to control their life, and 

·      misinterpret a positive criticism as a personal failure instead of a           constructive  comment.



Student overachievers tend to let nothing stop them from success. They strive for perfection which is a dream killer.  A student OA who is disappointed and depressed that their graduation GPA is 3.9999999 instead of 4.0 may have issues in the future. 


Alexandra Robbins blames the 3.9999 syndrome on an educational system that demands great grades to attend the "great" Universities. She says in her book “The Overachievers- The Secret Lives of Driven Kids" that she sees a “crushing cultural machinery that drives adolescents to the brink , flattening out their personalities, and warping their characters while pressing them to become perfect”. 


Charles Suscheck and Andrew Fuqua wrote an article titled "Overachievers on Agile Teams" on May 31, 2012 that warns employers that if they do not control the situation   domineering OA's can have a disastrous effect on the dynamics and well being of a company. "Incorrect management reinforcement can set up a feedback loop that kills team productivity...." .  Managers who use overachievers to judge other employees are making a critical mistake that could lead to morale issues. Such as “ Joe’s a good coder and puts in his forty-five hours, but Fred is working even more hours and doesn’t waste time playing games at lunch with the others.” Management often favors a person like Fred and overlooks and ignores someone like Joe." Left unchecked by management the authors say that "team growth, mutual trust, group direction, and commitment can be negatively impacted by an overachiever as they set a pace that few can match, which in turn puts a lot of stress on team members.



Supervisors "must mold the overachiever into a catalyst for whole-team productivity". By doing this, the manager  can still recognize the OA's importance to the organization while focusing most of the praise  on all the team members for a job well done. Management must recognize the (OA) for moving the process forward by carrying the load of the three peanut crackers, but the team should be recognized for "building" the crackers.



Athlete Overachievers  Are a  whole different ball game



Athletes who overachieve prepare themselves to be the very best they can be on game day.  By doing so they are an asset to the team not a liability. 




Tommy Nobis was not only a great athlete, but he was a classic overachiever- “one who  receives superior results through excessive effort”.  Tommy did not acquire a 19" neck by accident. During a time when the UT football staff did not believe in weight lifting , Tommy had the UT trainers build him a machine that he used to strengthen his neck.  Tommy's work ethic was never a detriment to the team.  


DKR understood the psychology surrounding athlete overachievers.  Royal was told in high school that he was too small to try out for the football team. He rejected their premise, worked hard, and made the team. DKR was an "over believer".  In his mind and in his spirit he felt bigger and faster than anyone. From Royal's first days as the Longhorn coach, he understood that over believers were great recruits. He knew that young men who successfully overcame athletic deficiency in high school did so by using heart, attitude, and spirit. DKR knew their work ethic made them winners and he wanted them on his team. 

 DKR also knew that OA's were self starters. Without being asked they would take the initiative to further prepare themselves for the pending opposition beyond the preparation boundaries required by the coaches. They would read printouts and study film to evaluate opposing teams tendencies. Like Venus Williams, Longhorn overachievers studied the opposing teams "over and over and over again” so by game day they were ready . Instinct and reflexes took over on game day and more times than not OA's won the game. 

In 1963 when Texas played Navy for the National Championship, some of the East Coast writers wrote some articles making fun of the Longhorn guys with skinny legs and no butts.  East Coast freelance writer Myron Cope stated that Texas is "the biggest fraud ever perpetrated on the football public... Texas plays the kind of football that was fashionable when players wore perforated cowhide helmets...Duke Carlisle executes a hand-off like a construction foreman passing a plank to a carpenter".  

What this writer and many other sports writers failed to articulate and understand about the 1963 Longhorns recruited by DKR is these players were inspired by a spiritual and mental power that turned these athletes into over believers. The Longhorns made a believer out of Roger Staubach on January 1, 1964. Roger said after the game “I hope I never see this place again.” But of course he did... as a Dallas Cowboy. 



In the 4th quarter of my life I still over believe, and I am now using that asset to fulfill some personal and charitable goals . One of which is