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Women's Sports History 1950-1977



Top of the Charts 1949



The high school physical education association decided to  get involved with women's basketball by supervising the competitive activity.  Rules were established for women's basketball and a playoff system organized and sponsored for Class A and Class B high school. 



1950's Tennis Style

1950's Tennis Style


Hiss description of women's sports as a "Play Day" is challenged.   Paraphrasing Tessa Nichols the issue of whether to sanction intercollegiate activities peaks in the 1950's . "Ideologies of women's sports and physical activity were changing". Female student athletes not the coaches led this campaign for more competitive opportunities.  Women start to rebel  against the stereotypical broiler plate description of a woman's role in society as "domestic". 

History of the struggle for women's sports  (3).jpg

Women are excelling at school and at work and the public's fear of powerful woman starts to wane.  A significant catalyst for the change in the perception of women's sports in the USA is triggered by the Russian's successful women's Olympic program. The USA is embarrassed by the performance of USA women athletes against Russian women, and the USA responds by opening a number "of fronts to broaden female participation in international competition". 

By 1954 21,000 girls were participating in League basketball and 8,700 in tennis. (data from the "History of Physical Education in Texas: an analysis of the Role of D.K. Brace." Ph.D. dissertation , USC 1967)


The Balloon fundraiser

After Intercollegiate women sports are  sanctioned funds to compete are "minimal to non-existent." Capitalism solves that problem.   A fundraising event is formed to sell balloons for 25 cents each at the UT home football games. The balloons purchased are then released after Texas made their first touchdown. Some balloons never have the opportunity to be released in the 50's. Regardless, the balloon fundraiser is a success and allows for a  "limited travel budget" for Longhorn women. 



1957 another key year in the history of women's sports 

Professor Hiss resigns her  Directorship at Texas. 

Under the leadership of Anna Hiss Intramural sports thrive with "23 tournaments in 18 activities."  

Collegiate women seeking greater athletic opportunities moved closer to their goals in 1957, when the long-entrenched official position statement of the Division for Girls and Women in Sport (DGWS) was amended to state that intercollegiate programs “may” exist. In 1963, the DGWS view of women in sport evolved further to state that it was “desirable” that intercollegiate programs for women exist (Gerber, et al., 1974).



Top of the Charts 1957



1957 Champs @ Southwest Texas Sports  Day  (2).jpg

1957 Basketball



Reflection- Women Longhorn Sports 1921-1957

Tessa Nichols states in her thesis that Anna Hiss had a "remarkable level of success during her tenure at the University of Texas." She defends Anna Hiss  from the "many scholars (who) are quick to criticize 20th century physical educators for their traditionalist and overly protective beliefs, without giving adequate acknowledgement to the roots of their beliefs or to the accomplishments of their programs" that ultimately paved the way for Betty Thompson and Donna Lopiano.

During Anna's early years as "Director" she was influenced by  prominent women such as  First Lady Lou Henry Hoover who believed  that women's sports should focus on  "artistry.... over Athleticism". The dogma of this era stated that competitive team sports were detrimental to a  woman's health. For this reason,  many women and men opposed women participating in intercollegiate athletics.    

Miriam Richards research at the Stark Center states that  Anna was "steep in the nationwide philosophies of womanhood and femininity related to physical activity". Hiss thought that competitive basketball fell outside of the parameters of a sanctioned sport for women. She felt that basketball was unfeminine and dangerous and therefore the Hiss doctrine strove to develop and maintain  basketball as simply a sport of enjoyment. 

Sports that reflected her doctrine included tennis, golf, archery, swimming and interpretive dance. For almost a century  society  believed that a woman's body should be protected from the stress of too much competition, and that women's sports should reflect "modesty and dignity". 

Her credo for women sports included : 

  • moderate physical activity;

  • a de-emphasis on competition among women;

  • a focus on inclusive participation over individual achievement; and

  • female-run space to protect athletes from the commercialization and professionalization that was common in the "male model" of sports."

In many ways  Hiss was a leader in the development of women's sports at UT, but in many other ways she was a follower. In reality the true trend setters for  the women's movement in sports are colleges and high school coaches who challenged the assumption that women should not compete in "stressful" team sports.  Only after the Texas UIL's  decision to reinstate competitive women team sports, the success of  colleges that promoted competitive team sports for women, and the AMA's endorsement of women competing in "aggressive" team sports did the University of Texas  finally concede that "stressful" competitive team sports are not detrimental to the "weaker" sex.  

By 1967 the myths about women and sports were dispelled and UT Austin Women's sports program begins to flourish. 

1957- 1966  

Jo Chapman takes over as interim Director of Intramurals  followed by Shiela O'Gara and Carolyn Hewatt.  More content on these individuals is pending. 

1963- An Important year in Longhorn women's sports

The Division of Girls and Women's Sports officials changes the "statement of competition" to encourage intercollegiate sports competition. The new direction by the DGWS supports a organizational setup that is equal to but separate  from the men's intercollegiate athletic department.  

By 1967 the women’s movement in sport was rapidly moving toward a status more in line with men’s athletics. In 1969, a schedule of national championships for women’s sports was announced that included gymnastics and track and field. Swimming, badminton, and volleyball followed in 1970 and in 1972, basketball was added. Women wanted an institutional membership organization similar to the NCAA. The CIAW was replaced by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) in 1971. This set the stage for the struggle to control women’s athletics in the 1970s between the AIAW and the NCAA (Gerber, et al., 1974).



1961 at the top of the charts






In the early 1960s, the membership in the "club" format declines. The "Clubs" wanted more competitive opportunities so in 1966, after a petition from two sets of students to set up intercollegiate volleyball and basketball teams, the UTSA club format is declared defunct and intercollegiate competition begins.  However,The UTSA did not die abruptly. As late as 1972 the UTSA was still competing on a state level . 











Early one morning last month, when nothing was stirring in Abilene, Texas but the reels of Muzak tape in a storefront on North Fourth Street, Mrs. Margaret Ellison put her gold starting blocks and red-white-and-blue batons in the trunk of her car and set out for Austin. A can of Rayette's The Young Set hair spray rolled about on the floor, a javelin rattled against the top of the dash, and blaring forth from the radio were, or so said one of the three girls in back, "the Imitation Beatles." She added disarmingly, "Did you know England just declared war on the United States? Lady Bird ate a Beatle."

Mrs. Ellison, who is known by her passengers (to her face) as Miz El'son or (behind her back) as Flamin' Mamie or Ma Kettle, is a 46-year-old divorcée who wears her tinted strawberry-blonde hair in what she calls a "chignon rat." Mrs. Ellison works as a secretary for Hank Hankins. On the door of Mr. Hankins' office, which is next to Charlie Cluck's in Abilene's First State Bank Building, is lettered "Hank Hankins Interests." Mr. Hankins' interests are oil, real estate, ranching "and other investments," and he will tell you that they are doing "real well." Mrs. Ellison's interest is the Texas Track Club (see cover), the best of a handful of all-girl track clubs in Texas. Mrs. Ellison is its coach, and she will tell you that her girls are coming along "real well."

The Texas Track Club is celebrated on two counts—its athletic achievements and the uncommon beauty of its girls, who compete in dazzling uniforms, elaborate makeup and majestic hairdos. These hairdos, which are either bouffant or flip if at all possible, may not be aerodynamically sound and may be "out" east of the Hudson, but they are an unqualified sensation at a track meet. "They are our trademark," says Jeanne Ellison, the coach's 16-year-old daughter. "Bouffant is easier to run in because the wind doesn't blow your hair in your face."

In one sense, the Texas Track Club has done more to promote women's track in the U.S. than if its members had, say, won the national AAU championships. (In fact, they finished 12th last year, with a third in the 440-yard relay and the 220-yard low hurdles and a sixth in the 220-yard dash.) After the age of 10, American girls generally lose interest in running—it is unbecoming and too far out. And American boys generally lose interest in the few girls who take up the sport, the popular belief being that they look like Olive Oyl or Tugboat Annie. The Texas Track Club, however, has shown that you can be beautiful and still run the 100 in 10.9. Because of this delightful anomaly, its members have been a hit—and spread the gospel—at such topflight meets as the Los Angeles, Albuquerque and Dallas Invitationals. And it is not at all unlikely that a couple of Mrs. Ellison's girls will make the U.S. Olympic team.

"I'm trying to change the stereotyped image of the track girl," says Mrs. Ellison. "Every year we have a good-looking team and good-looking uniforms—none of those bags. I prefer pretty girls. I insist that they wear makeup. We all go to the beauty shop before each meet, so we can get beautiful and get our minds off the meet. When we ran in Albuquerque this January, I could have killed myself. They have the worst beauty operators in the world in Albuquerque. After I came out of one shop, I went right into another one where this man made my hair worse. I had to go back to the motel and do it myself. We have different hairdos for each meet. We straighten a lot of girls' hair, but of course you can't make it too bouffant when it's natural-curly."

That March morning Mrs. Ellison was driving Janis Rinehart, Sue Schexnayder and Paula Walter, three of the club's eight girls, to a meet in the state capital. Two others, Irene Williams and Cel Rutledge, were unable to compete that weekend; Carvelynne Leonard (her sister is Dudley Darlynne) was driving in from Houston; Dora Dyson lives in Austin; and Jeanne, the coach's daughter, refused to go because she didn't want to be separated from Charles, her boy friend. "If she'd leave him alone, he'd be a better runner," says Mrs. Ellison. "They're jealous of one another. Charles had done the 220 in 21.4, the 100 in 9.9. It just kills my soul. They both have ability and they're hurting each other. I'd kick her off the team, only she's mine. I want my girls to go out, but last year Janis took her boy friend to the nationals and he was a disturbing influence."

The previous night Paula had asked Jeanne whether she ran for Charles, herself, the crowd or the team. "I run for Charles," said Jeanne, whose hair is frosted several shades of platinum. "That's definitely wrong. You run for the team," said Paula, who dyes her brown hair black and wears it "five or six ways, and real crazy." "Well," said Jeanne, "I feel better when Charles is there." "I'd hate the boy I date to see me run," said Paula. "I'd feel embarrassed."

Paula Walter, who was known as The Eola Flash when she was playing high school basketball in Eola, is 18 and runs the third leg on the club's 440-yard-relay team. She has twice won the Best Physically Built trophy at the Blue Bonnet Relays in San Angelo, last year was runner-up Miss Make it Yourself with Wool and took the first prize of 20 silver dollars in a twist contest. "I'm always entering contests," says Paula. "I like to do anything better than average." One of seven children whose names all start with P (including Poni), Paula boards with Mrs. Ellison. She says she wants to become a beautician. "Paula knows how to do hair," says Mrs. Ellison. "And she teaches the girls how to wear makeup." Most of the time Paula sits around the Ellison house trying on her clothes and painting her nails. The night before she left for Austin, they were the color of chocolate fudge. "That's a mixture of gold and pink," Paula explained. "I use black sometimes. When we wore black satin uniforms, I had black nail polish. In San Angelo, when I got down in my blocks, there were all those girls looking at my nails. Shoot, I got a good start. It was neat." But Paula is outgrowing track. "I'm so tired of having Coke dates," she says. "There is so much I miss just running track. I like to date. I love parties. I've always run on natural ability. I may as well be truthful, I think I could do a lot better, but if I trained like Rinehart I'd be the biggest square in town."

Janis—the aforementioned Rinehart—along with the other Texas Track Club girls who live in Abilene, works out four evenings a week at McMurry College. In an hour-and-a-half session she will jog a mile, do calisthenics and run five wind sprints of 115 yards each, then put her spikes on and run five repeat 150s and two or three 220s. Every other day she works in the blocks on 15 to 25 practice starts. The day after a meet, Janis jogs. "Rinehart can jog five miles without stopping," says Mrs. Ellison.

"Track is hard to give up," says Paula. "You learn new things, meet people. People satisfy me so much. If I don't get out and run some each day, I feel like I've committed a sin. I'm in top shape, but in bad condition." Indeed, Paula does real well by her white, sleeveless running shirt that has TEXAS emblazoned in big red letters across the front. "Mine fits tight," she says. "A lot of boys tease me, call me Miss Texas. I'm all Texas. I shouldn't talk so much about myself, but my life's been so interesting."

Mrs. Ellison, who scouts all Texas for her girls, found Paula, as she says, "in a big, old, German-type house out in the country. The first time I saw her she looked like a page out of Mademoiselle or Harper's Bazaar. But the first time I saw Janis, she was running barefoot in pedal pushers on a cinder track."

Janis Rinehart, who comes from Snyder, is 19 and works as a clerk at The First State Bank in Abilene, where they all call her Speedy. "I raced my boss in the 60 and the 100," she says. "He might have beat me in the 60, but he stumbled. He's 40, but he's in real good shape." Janis has run the 100 in 10.9 (the winning time in the 1963 nationals was 11.0) and the 220 in 24.7. "Janis comes from a family of 10," says Mrs. Ellison. "Her basic training was chasing her brothers about the farm. She had light-brown hair, but I decided to make her a blonde because she had the complexion and because she'd stand out in the judges' eyes at the finish of a close race. They also say blondes have more fun, but it went to her head with that boy friend of hers. When she was ready to go home after the nationals, I dyed her hair brown so her family wouldn't disown her. 'My dad'll kill me,' she told me.

"I think every girl can be pretty. There isn't any such thing as a girl I can't remodel. I taught Janis how to dress, act, speak like a lady. She's hard to dress, because she's tall in the body, is long-waisted, has big feet and doesn't walk too well in high heels. She had to learn what clothes to buy, how to dress, match or mix. I can visualize it when the girls can't—color, mix and coordination. Personally, I like to dress. I have a lot of clothes—three closets full."

Sue Schexnayder, who was known as Swift Sue in high school, is 19 and one of eight children. She lives in Port Arthur and has a partial athletic scholarship at Odessa Junior College, where she and a solitary boy comprise the track team. Like Janis, Sue has done the 100 in 10.9. Sue's workouts include four to six repeat 330s every other day, three to five repeat 60s, and 150s and 220s—all of which leads Mrs. Ellison to the dour observation that her college coach "is killing her."

"She's a real shy child," says Mrs. Ellison. "My other kids yak all the time like I do. She's sensitive and has no confidence. Sometimes I can't get inside her little wall. She wants to quit every time she loses. Sue's a natural beauty with natural-curly hair. She's had it straightened once. The girls back-comb it, and she wears this blue ribbon when she runs, and is real cute. Sue has a boy friend now, and beams all over. I'm so glad."

Carvelynne Leonard also has natural-curly hair, but Mrs. Ellison says, "She wears it long and plain. Paula's going to fix it for her." Carvelynne (her father expected a boy, whom he was going to name Carver) comes from Mont Belvieu, and is an all-district basketball player. Carvelynne's father, a pumper for the Sun Oil Company, supervises and fosters his daughter's track career. Carvelynne has been running competitively since she was 6, and was twice a national champion in the Junior Olympics. "The house wouldn't be the same if I wasn't running," she says. "My dad, everyone expects me to."

Dora Dyson, 20, a redheaded high jumper with a passion for snow cones, is the only married woman on the Texas Track Club. Her husband, Jerry, attends San Marcos Junior College, and Dora works for an insurance company. "Dora's done 5 feet 4," Mrs. Ellison says. "Golly, she can get 5 feet 6, 5 feet 7. I know she can do it."

The club's "weight men" are Irene Williams, 19, from Barksdale, a sophomore at Abilene Christian College, and Cel Rutledge, 21, a medical technician in Houston. Cel placed fourth in the shot at the nationals two years ago with a put of 47 feet 10 inches, and has thrown the javelin 148 feet, the discus 142. "Cel's facial features are real fine," says Mrs. Ellison.

In 1961 Mrs. Ellison founded the Texas Track Club around her older daughter, Pat—now 21 and retired from competition—who had broken the 75-yard-dash record in the Junior Olympics. "It started out as kind of a dream," Mrs. Ellison says, "and now we've had six different uniforms, I have a feeder club of 10 to 20 younger kids, the Abilene Track Club, last year we competed in 18 meets and so far this year we've been to the Los Angeles Invitational, the Albuquerque Invitational, the Lubbock Invitational, the Will Rogers Indoor Games in Fort Worth, the Dallas Invitational, the Long Beach Games, the Gulf Coast Federation Meet in Houston, the Border Olympics in Laredo, the West Texas Relays in Odessa, the Edwardian Olympics in Austin and the San Angelo Relays.

"I've gotten tremendous satisfaction and enjoyment out of educating the girls socially, building their bodies and helping them, and, as old as I am, I like the recognition and the glamour, too. Of course, each year I think maybe I won't put as much into it. Last year I spent $3,000 of my own money on the club, and I'm always running around trying to get sponsors. When we went to Los Angeles, for instance, our trip was paid for by the Optimist Club of Abilene, the Arvin Norwood Drilling Company of Midland and the Pool Well Servicing Company of San Angelo.

"I think I've helped pioneer women's track in Texas, and given the girls and myself something better to do than drive around drinking Cokes. Before I organized the Texas Track Club nothing interested me. I never belonged to a bridge club. You see yourself in the girls. It lights a flame."

Mrs. Ellison was born in Eastland, Texas, but at 8 she moved to Los Angeles with her mother after her parents were divorced. Her father, Joe Burkett, was a Texas state senator, and her grandfather was the originator of the Burkett pecan. "I became a nut about track when I was 13," says Mrs. Ellison. "I ran the 60 in seven flat in junior high school. One night on the beach I raced the boy who finished fourth in the 100 in the all-city junior high school meet, and beat him. And so I lost another boy friend—he never spoke to me again. I still put on spikes, run 50s, jog 440s. I love to throw the javelin. I have a real good arm on me.

"I was little and quick and had a lot of freckles," Mrs. Ellison recalls. Mrs. Ellison still has a lot of freckles, but now she covers them up. "One day Margaret discovered makeup," says her sister, Mrs. Dorothy Palmie, who was once one of Lyndon Johnson's secretaries, "and she hasn't stopped looking in the mirror since." "I went on a makeup and hair binge," says Mrs. Ellison.

"I've found that girls lose interest in track, don't keep coming out regularly, if you don't make a game of it," says Mrs. Ellison. "That's why we have different uniforms every year and go in for makeup and hairdos. It's just like giving candy to kids—you have to keep them entertained. And you've got to get them young. But if you ever get that little blue ribbon into their hands....

"I do think, however, that a man can coach girls better than a woman, for the simple reason that girls will listen to a man, they have more confidence in him, and a woman likes to show off for a man. But most men are too busy to understand women. They just say, put on a white blouse and shorts and come out. For instance, on my workout schedules, I always put down 'No Talking.' Girls are always yakking, 'I went out with so-and-so.' I don't want to hear them talking personal problems. I keep saying girls are different. You can't train them like boys, they get emotionally upset. You have to know their moods and recognize what these moods mean."

Mrs. Ellison got the chance to put her theories into practice last year when she was selected to coach the women's team in the dual meets with Russia, Poland, Germany and England. "I was in a state of shock," she says. "Lord, I was hysterical." The trip began disastrously. In Moscow the girls performed way below expectations, and newspaper stories told how they broke training and carried on. The reports, Mrs. Ellison contends, were exaggerated. As the European trip progressed, the girls' behavior and performances improved markedly. Mrs. Ellison says the girls told her in England that they were sorry they had given her such a hard time. "Two of the girls gave me presents," she says. "I cried. It proved to me, however, that I can handle girls."

The trip also gave Mrs. Ellison an opportunity to buy a form-fitting German uniform, which she had copied for the Texas Track Club by the Fab-Knit Division of Holt's Sporting Goods in Waco, a fact that is boldly embroidered on the sweat-suit tops. "I wish I could design the stuff for the U.S. Olympic team," Mrs. Ellison says. "Whoever picks them doesn't know enough about style today. The uniforms are baggy, like the boys'. And someone ought to design a dress for the banquets the girls have to attend after every international meet. If a girl has nothing to wear she feels left out, and that creates problems. The traveling dresses aren't too bad, but they have no style." The Texas Track Club's traveling uniforms are royal blue shifts that are decorated with a patch depicting the flag of Texas. "When we go to hotels they must wear the dresses," says Mrs. Ellison. "They are permitted to wear slims in motels."

As Mrs. Ellison drove south to Austin, the cactus, mesquite and jackrabbit country gave way to more fertile farmland, and a sign proclaimed "Sure Fresh Eggs." Sue was reading a history assignment in The American Spirit, and Mrs. Ellison was fiddling with the radio dial.

"That's down yonder, Coach," said Janis, hearing a hillbilly song on the radio. "Turn it to the right. Miz El'son, you go way too fast."

"Find a station, Miz El'son," Paula said. "I can't go that church music today."

"That's country and western," said Janis.

"It tears me up," said Mrs. Ellison. "It just tears my toenails."

"I'm going to design our new summer traveling uniforms," Paula said. "Low neck, deep back, no sleeves, fitted...."

"Paula's a nonconformist," Sue said.

"You'd look like a burlesque line," Mrs. Ellison said.

Paula spooned grape jelly out of a plastic cup.

"You starving, poor li'l fat thing?" Mrs. Ellison asked.

"Coach, is it true that hurdling will broaden your hips?" Janis asked.

"What time is it?" Sue asked.

"If we didn't have to go back after Paula's makeup kit, we'd have been O.K.," Mrs. Ellison said.

"We were four blocks away," said Paula.

"We were six," said Sue.

"This is the time when all the personalities come out," said Mrs. Ellison. "You know, no one ever explained to me that you had to go to college to become a coach. Everything I've learned has been from books, talking and observation. Sometimes the men coaches make fun of me. They say, you're not a coach, you're a promoter. Maybe I'm not a coach, but maybe I'm out to prove to these men who are so learned that I can do it. It will give me a lot of satisfaction to prove that it doesn't take years of experience and education to become a successful coach. I've been coaching only five years and I was the coach of the U.S. team that went to Russia. It's a laugh in a way.

"Did you know that Babe Didrikson was the only girl from Texas that ever made the Olympic track team? I want Janis to make it and Sue and Dora.... Then someday I'd like to get me a summer track camp by a river and make Flamin' Mamie a little money."






In 1966 Coach June Walker has tryouts for the basketball team. The games are played in Women's Gym. There are three basketball coaches between 1966 and 1975- Dalton, Hansen, and Page.

In 1966 the women Longhorns also started intercollegiate competition under the Division of Recreational Sports in volleyball.

The total budget for the two sports for the first year was a laughable $700.  It was not enough to cover all of the costs so faculty members volunteered as coaches  on a non-pay basis and the team members shared a set of handmade uniforms, paid for their own transportation expenses, played on the undersized courts at the Women's Gym, and used second hand equipment from the physical education department. Regardless of the obstacles  1966 and 1967 represent  a defining points in the History of  the U.T. women's sports.  

 1968-1982 - The National organization AIAW takes the lead in women's sports

The AIAW's first mistake is prohibiting athletic scholarships for women. The AIAW leaders felt scholarships would result in athlete-students instead of student-athletes.  The physical educators agreed with the AIAW's "no scholarship" rule because they knew offering  scholarships would require recruiting and recruiting resulted in less time teaching for the coaches.   The AIWA focused on the female student athletes education, not on athletic performance, and thus rejected the ‘win or die’ attitude of the NCAA. Instead, the AIAW emphasized participation in sport as the most important aspect and de-emphasized winning (Sperber, 1990).

In 1969 the AIAW (Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women) is  formed. A schedule of national championships for women’s sports was announced that included gymnastics and track and field. Swimming, badminton, and volleyball followed in 1970 and in 1972, basketball was added. 

The AIAW during the 1971-1972 academic season boasted of 278 charter institutions and 800 by 1981. The organization had lofty goals but that were not grounded in reality.


Page Elizabeth Bauerkemper  in  her 2013  report titled Beyond Sports: A Guidebook for Potential Collegiate Female Student -Athletes  states that In 1972 there were only 32,000 women on college teams receiving 2% of the athletic budget.  Title IX was about to change that percentage. 

The  1970's 

The mid 70's also represents some very  important defining moments for U.T. women sports.  With the implementation of  Title IX and the addition of  Donna Lopianos strong leadership skills,  the U.T. women's athletic department finally had a clear vision for success.  Unfortunately, there were budgetary restraints, lawsuits, UT bureaucracy, U.T. fiefdoms,  and  the stereotype definition of  a "women's place" that  Donna Lopiano had to overcome  before she could implement her clear vision. 


The Longhorns did not lead the way for women's sports but there was still progress made from 1971 thru 1976.  The UTSCA (University of Texas Sports Club Association) . This league allowed women the opportunity to compete with other "minor" sports teams.  Clubs included badminton, basketball, golf, gymnastics, soccer, swimming, tennis, and volleyball. 


Gymnastics was the most successful team in 1976 winning second in state. Kathy Moore was the standout performer. The funds came from the Intercollegiate Athletics for Men said UTSA spokeswomen  June Burke.  The funding was small which sometimes caused  problems.  The comment in the 1974 "Cactus" makes the point very clearly.

 In 1973 the Athletic Director said "Where are we going to get all the money we need " for all the new sports?  The Cactus says all the women's sports teams only received $2400 a year so the 100 - plus women athletes paid for their own equipment, training, travel, and the coaches were unpaid for their service. There was a study approved to consider expanding programs under the intercollegiate athletics for women but the Athletics Council refused to act on the suggestions. Under pressure to eliminate sex discrimination in 1974 the Athletic Council created the Intercollegiate athletics  for women's department with a budget of $50,000. Sports under the AIAW were basketball, , swimming, tennis, golf and volleyball.  As a result of the meager funds women athletes had to pay for their own equipment, training, travel, and all other expenses. The women coaches were unpaid.

1973- 1974


1973 - Herb Holland from the Daily Texan states that at the SWC winter meeting , the group voted to recognize women’s participation in varsity athletics.

March 1974 the council announces a proposal including a separate council for women, a budget of $50,000, use of Gregory Gym offices, and a separate student blanket tax to provide funding for the women’s program. Many thought that the councils decision was a cop-out. Led by Betty Thompson many wanted to merge the funding of the men’s and women’s program.

The Cactus states that In 1974 Coach Page basketball team moves to Gregory Gym and playes Southwest Texas State University.

The 1974 UTSA women’s Tennis team was good but they were forced to practice and play at the inadequate intramural facilities. Women can only use the men’s Tennis courts when the men are not practicing or playing a match. Betty Hagerman is the Tennis Coach and says Everyone is confident we will keep moving forward in women’s tennis.

Golf Coach Pat Weis was building a powerhouse for the Longhorns with Nancy Hager, Jan Rapp, Debbie Norton and Carla Spenkock .

1975 - 1976

1975 tennis (6).jpg

 1975- Even though  there were cutbacks in expenses in 1975 for the college of Humanities and Longhorn sports attendance was trending down, 37 million dollars was allocated to build a new basketball arena, a new swimming complex, and a new baseball stadium.   This allocation of so much money to sports upset many any Academia.    There was even controversy within the Athletic department when the number of scholarships in some sports were reduced and some coaches lost their jobs requiring the remaining coaches to double on coaching responsibilities.

 1976-1977 Jody Conradt became the first full-time women's coach in basketball and volleyball. Mack Brice was the first Sports Information Directors  for the UT women. Texas budget $9000 to sponsor the AIAW National championships in volleyball at Gregory Gym. 

Nancy Hale is the first woman to be awarded an athletic scholarship at UT and she is the Texas AIAW individual champion.

1976- The UTSCA ( University of Texas Women’s Sports Clubs were thriving ) - Judo, Aerial Tennis, Aikido, Lacrosse had a lot of interest but women’s soccer led the way with 50 members. Under Betty Thompson’s direction the UTSCA and the intramurals were combined under the Division of Recreational Sports. Soccer continued to press for NCAA recognition.

Betty Thompson plays fortune teller and is right when she says that “In philosophy, I believe we have moved from an intramural stance to a recreational sports stance.”



1900- The first Olympic Games to feature female athletes was the 1900 Games in Paris.

1908- London had 37 female athletes who competed in archery, tennis and figure skating.

1912- Stockholm featured 47 women and saw the addition of swimming and diving, as well as the removal of figure skating and archery.

1924 saw a record 135 female athletes in the Olympics. Fencing was added to the programme., 1924 saw the inception of the Winter Olympics where women competed only in the figure skating.

1928- The summer Games saw the debut of women's athletics and gymnastics. In athletics, women competed in the 100 metres, 800 metres, 4 × 100 metres relay, high jump and discus throw. The 800-metre race was controversial as many competitors were reportedly exhausted or unable to complete the race.

1932- Gymnastics is reinstated as a women’s Olympic sport.

1964 Summer Olympics held in Tokyo, Volleyball made its debut.

1971 – The Amateur Athletic Union ruled that "certain women" could take part in marathons, provided they either started their race 10 minutes before or after the men or on a different starting line. The different starting line requirement was dropped in 1972.

1973 – Terry Williams Munz became the first woman in America awarded an athletic scholarship when she accepted a golf scholarship from the University of Miami.

1974 – The Women's Sports Foundation was created by Billie Jean King in America. It is "a charitable educational organization dedicated to increasing the participation of girls and women in sports and fitness and creating an educated public that supports gender equity in sport."

1976 – Women's rowing was added to the Olympic Games programme at a distance of 1000 metres. Women debuted in basketball and handball. Women also competed for the first time in rowing.

1979 – Crystal Fields, only eleven years old, was the first girl to win a baseball Pitch, Hit, and Run competition in America. She competed against all boys in the finals.

1984 – The U.S. Women’s softball team won the championship in the first Women’s International Cup played in Los Angeles, beating China, 1–0. Synchronized swimming made its debut., Women also made their debut in cycling, rhythmic gymnastics, and the women's marathon.

1985 – The United States national soccer team was formed.

1987- The [American] National Girls and Women in Sports Day (NGWSD) is an annual day of observance held during the first week of February to acknowledge the accomplishments of female athletes, recognize the influence of sports participation for women and girls, and honor the progress and continuing struggle for equality for women in sports.

1991 – All new sports applying to be included in the Olympic program were required to feature women’s events.

1996 – Women’s soccer and women’s softball became medal sports at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta for the first time; both events were won by US teams.

2004- Baseball and boxing remained the only sports not open to women at the Olympic Games.

2005 – The organizers of the New York City Marathon announced they would be rewarding the female champion $130,000, that is $30,000 more than its male winner received. This may be the first time a sporting event ever paid more to a female than a male in the same competition. It is also the largest first prize for any marathon.

2012- Summer Olympics introduced women's boxing.

Here is the sequence of women’s sports added by year

Tennis 1900, Golf 1900,Sailing 1900/1988 ,Archery 1904 ,Figure skating 1908 ,Diving 1912 ,Swimming 1912, Fencing 1924, Athletics 1928, Alpine skiing 1936 ,Cross-country skiing 1936, Canoeing 1948 ,Equestrian 1952 ,Speed skating 1960, Volleyball 1964, Luge 1964, Shooting 1968 ,Basketball 1976, Handball 1976, Rowing 1976 ,Field hockey 1980, Cycling 1984 ,Table tennis ,1988 Badminton, 1992 Biathlon, 1992 Judo, 1992 Short track speed skating, 1992 Football, 1996 Softball ,1996 Curling, 1998 Ice hockey, 1998 Modern pentathlon, 2000 Taekwondo, 2000 Triathlon, 2000 Water polo, 2000 Weightlifting, 2000 Bobsleigh, 2002 Skeleton, 2002 Wrestling ,2004 Boxing 2012 ,Ski jumping 2014, Rugby 2016