Title IX changed the landscape of College Sports

 

The History of Title IX is in the link below

http://www.titleixtexas.com/history.html

In 1972 the Title IX civil rights act of 1964 was signed into law by President Richard Nixon. The amendment required all universities who receive federal funds to offer equal opportunities for men and women in athletics and academics. Universities were given 6 years to come into compliance with the new law. Interestingly, The NCAA initially raised money to fight the implementation of  Title IX, but by 1981 the NCAA was fully supportive of women's sports at the University level.

 Many may not know but from 1972-1982 the AIAW (not the NCAA)  acted as the  official college governing body for women athletics. It was the AIAW that crowned the  National Champions in women's sports. 

In A History of Women in Sport Prior to Title IX the author Richard Bell states the NCAA became concerned by what it perceived to be the potential weakening of its position as the dominant and controlling body of intercollegiate athletics. If Title IX was to apply to intercollegiate sports at all levels and women were to be elevated to a status equal to the men, its financial assets and political power were threatened. The first approach of the NCAA, when faced with the threat of equality in intercollegiate athletics, was to attempt to limit Title IX’s application. The NCAA tried to offer its interpretation of Title IX (Acosta & Carpenter, 1985). It encouraged a narrow interpretation of the law, excluding athletic departments from the scope of Title IX. The NCAA argued that because athletic departments did not receive federal funds, they should be excluded from compliance. Nonetheless, when the NCAA sought to limit the application of Title IX, it began to address the issue of control of women’s athletics in earnest.

The NCAA was a powerful adversary for the AIAW because of its wealth, political influence, and long history. The NCAA decided to introduce women’s championships for intercollegiate sports by offering the institutions sponsoring women’s sports a proposition that ultimately led to the demise of the AIAW. The NCAA offered to: (a) pay all expenses for teams competing in a national championship, (b) charge no additional membership fees for schools to add women’s programs, (c) create financial aid, recruitment, and eligibility rules that were the same for women as for men, and finally, (d) guarantee women more television coverage. The NCAA had earmarked three million dollars to support women’s championships. The AIAW could not compete with the NCAA inducements and the loss of membership, income, championship sponsorship, and media rights forced the AIAW to cease operations on June 30, 1982 (Festle, 1996). The AIAW sued the NCAA for allegedly violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, but was unsuccessful when the courts ruled that the market for women’s athletics was open for competition, therefore no anti-trust laws had been violated (Schubert, Schubert, & Schubert-Madsen, 1991).

 

According to the book Life of a Coach (The Story of Pat Weis) by Mickie Edwards the AIAW rules stated that a female athlete could transfer freely to any university because neither scholarships or financial assistance would be extended to the woman student athlete.  

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 In 1977 Bari Brandwynne excelled in golf and wanted to be a Longhorn.  Her dad was a bandleader at Caesar's in Vegas and two singer celebrities- Mac Davis and Don Cherry- called Coach Weis to discuss Bari's  great talent. Coach Weis sent Bari a letter stating that U.T. could not recruit her or pay her way to the campus for an interview. Bari understood the AIAW rules so at 17 she drove to Austin with her two dogs and met with Coach Weis. Bari became the youngest Longhorn golf member on the team.

In A History of Women in Sport Prior to Title IX the author Richard Bell states the NCAA became concerned by what it perceived to be the potential weakening of its position as the dominant and controlling body of intercollegiate athletics. If Title IX was to apply to intercollegiate sports at all levels and women were to be elevated to a status equal to the men, its financial assets and political power were threatened. The first approach of the NCAA, when faced with the threat of equality in intercollegiate athletics, was to attempt to limit Title IX’s application. The NCAA tried to offer its interpretation of Title IX (Acosta & Carpenter, 1985). It encouraged a narrow interpretation of the law, excluding athletic departments from the scope of Title IX. The NCAA argued that because athletic departments did not receive federal funds, they should be excluded from compliance. Nonetheless, when the NCAA sought to limit the application of Title IX, it began to address the issue of control of women’s athletics in earnest.

The NCAA was a powerful adversary for the AIAW because of its wealth, political influence, and long history. The NCAA decided to introduce women’s championships for intercollegiate sports by offering the institutions sponsoring women’s sports a proposition that ultimately led to the demise of the AIAW. The NCAA offered to: (a) pay all expenses for teams competing in a national championship, (b) charge no additional membership fees for schools to add women’s programs, (c) create financial aid, recruitment, and eligibility rules that were the same for women as for men, and finally, (d) guarantee women more television coverage. The NCAA had earmarked three million dollars to support women’s championships. The AIAW could not compete with the NCAA inducements and the loss of membership, income, championship sponsorship, and media rights forced the AIAW to cease operations on June 30, 1982 (Festle, 1996). The AIAW sued the NCAA for allegedly violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, but was unsuccessful when the courts ruled that the market for women’s athletics was open for competition, therefore no anti-trust laws had been violated (Schubert, Schubert, & Schubert-Madsen, 1991).

By  1980 the AIAW had renounced the "no" scholarship offer for women, but that decision came too late. Legal, commercial, and market forces decimated the AIAW membership ,and the NCAA became the governing body for all men and women college sports.  The Longhorn women's athletic program disagreed with the decision to dismantle the AIAW stating the NCAA's decision to dis-allow  student athletes in the governance of the organization and  "using its financial monopoly in men's sports to acquire women's sports" was wrong. UT was concerned that the NCAA was too commercially driven and considered student athletes as "investment property" and that women would not get fair representation in the male dominated NCAA. In Tessa Nichols thesis titled ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND WOMEN'S SPORTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS 1918-1992 , she states that  Lopiano commented in a interview that football spending was an "embarrassment of riches" and that football revenues should be "shared  among all the sports". 

Finally in May of 1993 - 21 years after implementation of Title IX-  UT settled all law suits for non-compliance issues related to Title IX by adding women's soccer, softball, and rowing to its list of sanctioned NCAA sports. 

 

The spirit of Title IX is now part of the great history of Longhorn sports as witnessed by the winners of awards presented at the Women's All Sports Banquets.   A sampling follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Definition of awards given at the Women's All Sports Banquet.

  1. The Women's Athletics Department's highest endowed scholarship honor - the V.F. "Doc" Neuhaus Endowed Presidential Scholarship honor was Established in 1976 as the first endowed scholarship in women's athletics, the Neuhaus Presidential Scholarship honors both athleticism and academics.

  2. Coca Cola Solid Citizen Award (given to the student-athlete whose community relations efforts have been exemplary) 

  3. The Texes Exes award goes to a male and female student-athlete annually who have displayed outstanding leadership and academic and athletic success, with each recipient gaining life-time membership into the Texas Exes Association.

  4. Big 12 Conference Scholar-Athlete Award is earned by  the senior who exhibits the greatest combination of performance in athletics, academics and community achievement.

  5. The Lorene Rogers Scholar-Athlete Award, presented to the senior student-athlete with the highest overall grade point average over her four-year UT career.

  6. The Jill Sterkel Leadership Award, given to the student-athlete whose exceptional athletic accomplishments have brought attention to The University.

  7. Big 12 Community Champion recognition goes to the UT women's athletics top community service volunteer.

  8. Angie Broussard Spirit Award is earned by the student-athlete who has overcome barriers and setbacks. It is the department's "Comeback Award".

  9. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholar Awards is awarded to minority student athletes who carry a GPA of 3.2 or higher. 

 

2016 HOH

 

 

 

2016 HOH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2012 HOH

 

 

 

 

 

 

2007 Texas Women's Athletics All Sports Awards Presentation

The awards presentation was underwritten by the University Co-op.

 

 

V.F. Neuhaus Endowed Presidential Scholarship honor -- went to Katie Robinson 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Big 12 Conference Scholar-Athlete Award went to Amy Burlingham soccer  The All-Big 12 standout, a four-year letter winner, 

 

 

 

 

The Lorene Rogers Scholar-Athlete Award, went to co-recipients -- twin sisters and cross country and distance performers Landra and Lige Stewardson. Lige Stewardson attended Harvard University for graduate studies. 

 

 

 

The Coca-Cola Solid Citizen Award went to sophomore basketball guard Erika Arriaran. 

The Barbara Jordan Endowed Scholarship went to sophomore track and field standout Alexandria Anderson

 

The Donna Lopiano/Jean Kaspar Endowed Scholarship was given to softball senior catcher Megan Willis

The Cunningham/Kaspar Endowed Scholarship, awarded to All-America First Team soccer defender and sophomore Kasey Moore 

The Arthur Ashe Sports Scholars were:

junior Delia Huang (Austin, Texas/Westwood HS), an All-Big 12 freestyle specialist and Academic All-Big 12 business major; (no picture)

 

Junior Temeka Kincy (Indianapolis, Ind./Lawrence North HS), an All-Big 12 middle distance standout and biology/pre-med major with a 3.68 GPA.

Senior swimmer Leah Avilla (Livermore, Calif./Livermore HS), an education major, Big 12 selection and Honorable All-America swimmer

 

 

 

 

Sophomore swimmer Hee-Jin Chang (Seoul, Korea/Phillips Academy), a government major, two-time All-American and five-time All-Big 12 selection in the free and relay events;

 

2006 Texas Women's Athletics All Sports Awards Presentation 

 

 

The Jill Sterkel Leadership Award went to tennis star  Petra Dizdar. 

 

 

 

 

 

V.F. "Doc" Neuhaus Endowed Presidential Scholarship honor - went to Osterman for the second year in a row. (for more on Osterman click on "softball"") 

Osterman received the Texas Exes Lifetime Award as the 2006 female recipient.

 

Big 12 Conference Scholar-Athlete Award went to All-America sprinters and relay specialists Sheretta Jones and  LaTashia Kerr ( use the search engine  for more information on Sheretta and LaTashia) . 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Lorene Rogers Scholar-Athlete Award went to Soccer goalkeeper Melissa Androuny (no picture) and rower Courtney MacIntosh. 

 

 

 

 

 

Darrell K Royal Endowed Centennial Presidential Scholarship is  awarded to volleyball sophomore Michelle Moriarty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Donna Lopiano/Jean Kaspar Endowed Scholarship was given to softball senior Tina Boutelle

 

 

 

 

  • The Darrell K Royal Endowed Presidential Scholarships went to  junior Marshevet Hooker ( use the search engine  for more information on Marshevet).  and to soccer junior Karen Haight( use the search engine  for more information on Karen). 
  • The Barbara Jordan Endowed Scholarship went to junior track and field standout Michelle Carter ( use the search engine  for more information on Michelle). 

 

 

The Cunningham/Kaspar Endowed Scholarship, awarded to All-Big 12 soccer defender and sophomore Stephanie Logterman. She won a  NCAA and Big 12 postgraduate scholarship for medical School.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2005 Women's All Sports Banquet

 

Headlining the Women's Athletics award recipients were five student-athletes who received Texas Athletics' highest departmental honors.

 

Jamie Carey receives the The Coca Cola Solid Citizen Award and the Texas Exes Lifetime Award. 

Alexis Garcia receives the 2004-05 Big 12 Conference Scholar-Athlete Award.  

 

 

 

 

Nina Norman received The Jill Sterkel Leadership Award

 

 

 

The Lorene Rogers Scholar-Athlete Award, went to softball outfielder Melanie Jarrett. (no picture)

Danielle Kowalski recieved the Big 12 Community Champion as UT women's athletics top community service volunteer. (no picture)

Annissa Hastings is  recipient of the Angie Broussard Spirit Award (no picture) 

Five student-athletes also received the Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholar Awards.

  • volleyball sophomore Dariam Acevedo
  • soccer senior goalkeeper Alex Gagarin 
  • Jullie Gailey , a kinesiology major and a Big 12 All-Academic First Team standout
  • softball senior Alexis Garcia, who also received the Big 12 Scholar-Athlete Award
  • junior track and field standout LaTashia Kerr 

 

Image below is from Texassports.com

In 2012 there were approximately 200,000 females benefitting from Title IX and participating in  NCAA sanctioned sports.